Starch & Conflour

120 years of production on the Lane Cove River

The Chicago Starch Mills opened on the banks of the Lane Cover River (at the junction of present-day Mowbray Rd West and 170 Epping Road, Lane Cove) in 1894. Willoughby Council has installed a Heritage Plaque in the vicinity to commemorate the Mill. The wording on the plaque is:

  • In 1891 Harry Clifford Love leased property from Mrs Sidney Brodie Whatmore, who had obtained a rescission to acquire the crown land on the Lane Cove River. In 1894 he opened the Chicago Starch Mills and in 1907 and 1908 purchased the land. Initially the mill made cornflour and laundry starch. By 1911 Clifford Love and Company processed oatmeal and other commodities. In 1966 Corn Products Company bought the factory. Fielders bought a share of the company in 1977 and the remainder in 1986, trading as Goodman Fielder Mills Limited. In 2000 the company was sold to the Penford Corporation and now trades as Penford Australia Limited.

In August, 2013 the Mill was being operated by  Ingredion.

Dewey

NOTE: This story draws heavily on the book by Beverley Johnson

The Chicago Starch Mills that opened on the banks of the Lane Cove River on the 3rd November, 1894 were used to manufacture starch and cornflour. It appears that the industry began in buildings previously erected by John Sugden Berry, a bone dust manufacture who had operated a boiling down works on the site of the future mill. Harry Clifford Love, first leased the property from Mrs Sidney Brodie Whatmore in July 1891 and purchased the land on which the mill stood in 1908.The mill had been built within the 100 foot reservation, land by law owned by the Crown. However, Mrs Whatmore had applied for and been granted a rescission and was thus able to alienate and sell the land.

The two products manufactured at the Mill (starch and conflour) both required copious quantities of water.

WATER SUPPLY

Until 1890 water was supplied to parts of the North Shore from the Paddington Reservoir via Dawes and Milson Points. In 1892 an alternate supply became available. From Potts Hill Reservoir water was fed by gravity using caste-iron pipes to a new pumping station at Ryde. From there it was pumped through a wrought-iron pipe across the Lane Cove River to two service reservoirs at Chatsworth (sic)(Chatswood). The mill connected to this pipeline. In 1916 there were concerns about the quantity of water used by the mill – daily readings were taken.

FIRE & RECONSTRUCTION

In 1897 the mill was almost destroyed by fire. The fire had broken out in the room where hot pipes dried the starch. At this time the four mill buildings were of brick and weatherboard with iron roofs. A replacement mill was built to plans by architect Geo. W Durrell. The new mill was constructed of wood (ironbark), oregon, hardwood and kauri with a galvanised iron roof. The river-front gable had barge boards of redwood.

SOURCES OF POWER & HEAT

The original power for the mill was steam The exhaust steam was used to dry the cornflour and starch. Coal was used to feed the steam boiler using an elevator system. The cost of transporting coal to the mill was high. Coke was sourced from the North Shore Gas Company (later taken over by Australian Gaslight Company – AGL). Due to the cost of coal the owner of the mill (Clifton Love) was recommending conversion to oil. In 1949 the mill had to close because of a coal strike. One of the boilers was converted to oil.

Oil was delivered up the Lane Cove River  by a Shell lighter (small draft boat) from Shell at Greenwich.

ELECTRICITY

No record exists of the way the mill was originally lit. In 1912 the issue of electric lighting was discussed with Chatswood (sic) (Willoughby?) Council. However the outcome was that tenders were called for the mill to be lit by electricity from the company’s generator and batteries.

As self-producing power became relatively expensive, in 1914 the company again approached Willoughby Council, without success. In 1919 the company contacted the city council (City of Sydney ?) about supply. But once again this appears to have resulted in DIY outcome.

In 1929 additional electricity plant was installed – a Bellis and Morcom engine. This engine was donated to the Sydney Powerhouse Museum in 1994. It is on display and regularly operated at the museum.

Owners & Managers 

  • Harry Clifford Love – Owner
  • Clifton (JosepClifton) Love – Owner
  • Peter C. Millar – Manager
  • John Newell – Blacksmith
  • Annie Paton Love (wife of Harry
  • Horace (David Horace) Love – Manager
  • Mr Fleeting – Manager
  • Mr H (Harold) Millar – Manager
  • Mr Cross – Manager
  • Mr Richards – Manager
  • Mr Benson – Manager

Refer a list of works at the mill below

Trademarks

  • Ship Cornflour
  • Mazaca Cornflour
  • Rumford Cornflour
  • Clifton Cornflour
  • Rumford Starch
  • Clifton Starch
  • Horace (David Horace) Love

There are photographs in Johnson’s book showing Mill workers. Many of the people are identified by name.

Telephone

The telephone preceded the 1897 fire. It was used to call the fire brigade.

Lane Cove River Transport

In the early days the most common method of transport to the Mill was by boat. The first boat used was the Lighter “Nellie“, owned and operated by the Jenkins family of Millwood Farm, Little Blue Gum Creek. The Nellie was built in 1882 by Hilton Bros. and the Jenkins used it to transport fruit to the city. In 1911 Martha Jenkins sold the Nellie to Clifford Love. The Nellie was renamed Nellie Love in 1918. By 1926 only the hull of the Nellie Love was worth keeping she was stripped and used as a barge.

The Annie Love, combination launch and lighter was built in Berry’s Bay in 1909. It was sold to Stannard Bros in 1938. The Peggy Love was built in McMahons Point in 1927.

Trade marks & brand names

There was a plethora of trade marks, brand names and packing used for the products of the Mill.

SHIP

Ship Cornflour

Used for some cornflour products.

CLIFTON’S LILYWHITE STARCH

Clifton Lilywhite starch

The trademark registered was for the whole packet. An example of this packet is at the Sydney Powerhouse Museum.


LAUNDRENA

The word ‘Laundrena’ was the trademark. Laundrena was  associated with a starch product.

NEWTON’S CORNFLOUR

Appears to have been registered as a trademark for an export cornflour product.

MILKRICHA

Milkricha was a gluten meal mixture sold to the dairy industry.

CLEMENT’S, WADE’S, BROWN & POLSON CORNFLOUR

Clement’s cornflour was sold in Queensland, Wade’s in New South Wales and Brown & Polson’s in Victoria.

Brown-Polson Cornflour

O-SO-SOFT

O-So-SoftA bath starch of coloured and scented starch crystals.

BONDCOR

A one-pack adhesive used in the corrugated board industry.

Packing the products

In August 1916 the Australian Manufacturer argued that a housewife no longer needed to buy in bulk from her grocer. The intelligent, economic housewife could now buy what she needed in cartons, tins or bottles.

Packing starch was a hard, tiring job, all done by hand.

In 1914, Clifford Love & Co. contemplated a new machine for packing cornflour

Processing the raw products

For rice starch (such as Clifton’s Lilywhite Starch), the process consisted of steeping (to pass slowly through small openings or pores) the rice in a caustic soda solution, putting through a buhr mill (a grinding machine utilising a fixed and mobile surface through which materials pass). The resulting slurry went to a vat where the starch settled and the liquid containing the protein was siphoned off.

For maize starch and associated products the process consisted of separating the parts of the kernel (germ, fibre, gluten and starch. Each was then processed for a specific use. After seeping, the maize was put through buhr stones to tear, rather than grind, the softened kernels. Then the pulp went to the germ separator. Because the germ is lighter than the grain, separation was by gravity. The germ was removed by skimmers. The solids sank and were passed through a series of shakers. What was left after the shakers was the starch and gluten slurry.

Cornflour

Starch was put in the settling vat and water added. The starch would settle and any gluten remaining would float. The gluten would be removed by suction pump and dried.

Starch

Starch intended for domestic or laundry use was moved to separate vats where water and caustic soda (and ‘blue’) was added. The starch settled and was moved into a starch press and water was vacuumed from it. The starch was wrapped in paper, tied with string and dried. The drying process caused a crust to form on the starch. This was removed by hand using a large knife. The starch was then packed.

Feed House

All residue from the various processes was pumped to the feed house to be processed into cattle food.

Raw Materials

Rice

In 1894 most of the rice in the colony was imported (from China or India). By 1934 rice was being sourced from Leeton.

Maize

Maize (corn) during the early years of production seems to have been sourced from around Grafton on the north coast of NSW. In 1915 maize was purchased from South Africa. In 1918 the Macleay River was mentioned as a source..

Advertising

A variety of methods were utilised to promote the products. These included:

  • Show Cards – large display cards showing the product arranged in the window of a shop
  • Window displays – using dummies of the products and Show Cards
  • Picture Show Advertisements – in city and suburban theatres
  • Public Places – using hoarding posters and at city and suburban railway stations, on ferries and wharves
  • Exhibitions – local and international. The Great White Train which toured the State for 6 months
  • The Commonwealth Trades Alphabet – designed for school children
  • Newspapers – in city and country papers

Getting there by road

In 1883 Willoughby Council had decided to clear and stump Mowbray Rd West from the Lane Cove Rd (now Pacific Highway) to the river. Unfortunately, work stopped about 2/3 of the way along the road. By 1920 there was a clear need for a formed road to the Mill and the tender was let and the road constructed. In 1938 the Epping – St Leonards Main Road (Epping Rd) was being constructed and routed across Mill land. This interfered with the Mill access road. It wasn’t until 1944 that a new access road was completed.

The construction of the road meant that grain could be transported to Lane Cove by semi-trailer (or by train to St Leonards) then by truck to the Mill.

2010: Corn Products International changed name to Ingredion.

Ingedion ( – 2013): http://www.foodinnovation.com/foodinnovation/en-us/Company/Pages/History.aspx

Johnson B, c. 1995, The Corngrinder – A hundred years of corn milling on the Lane Cove River, Goldman Fielder Ingredients Limited, Lane Cove

Title: Goodman Fielder (GMF) /​ Bill Pridham.

Author: Pridham, William.

Other Authors: Warburg Dillon Read Australia Equities.

Published: Melbourne : Warburg Dillon Read, c1999.

Subjects

Dewey Number

  • 332.670994

Libraries Australia ID

Boiling down is the process of rendering fat from animal carcasses to producetallow. It was a common small-farm activity for making soap and candles for domestic use, but was industrialised in the early 19th century, particulalry in Australia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiling_down

Supreme Court of New South Wales

Stephen J., 18 July 1889

Source: Sydney Morning Herald , 19 July 1889, p. 3

No. 1. Jury Court – (Before his Honor Mr. Justice Stephen and a jury of four.)

MONROE V. PERRY.

Mr. Tarleton, instructed by Mr. J.A. Cahill, appeared for the plaintiff. The defendant did not appear. This was an action brought by Eliza Monroe, widow, who at one time carried on business as a dressmaker, against John Sugden Berry, widower, to recover £500 damages for breach of promise of marriage.

http://www.law.mq.edu.au/research/colonial_case_law/nsw/cases/case_index/1889/monroe_v_perry/

Workers at the Mill

Allan                      Bonny

Allan                      Valerie

Atkins                    Gordon

Austin                   Steve

Banks                     George

Banks                     Karl

Banks                     Carl

Barrett                  Dick

Barrett                  Dick

Beaumont           Peter

Beckington          Tom

Beckington          Joan

Bellette                Doug

Bellette                Ross

Bellette                Warren

Bellette                Brian

Benson                 Miss

Benson                 Paul

Bird                        Arthur

Bird                        Alice

Black                      Alice

Black                      Jack

Boleat                   George

Booth                    Mrs.

Booth                    Bobby

Bowden                Basil

Brett                      Ernie

Brett/Howard     Adelaide

Brett                      Bob

Bryant                   Lila

Bryant                   Neville

Bunt                       Harold

Bunt                       Harry

Burton                   Lou

Bygraves              George

Calabro                 Ray

Calabro                 Pino

Calvi                       Sam

Calvi                       George

Christie                 E. (Liz)

Cleland                 Reg

Collett                   Barnie

Colvin                    J

Colwell                 Alan

Cooper                  Kenny

Cormack               Jim

Cross                      Mr

Curry                      Tom

Curry                      Clive

Cutts                      Harry

Cutts                      Ann

Cutts                      John

Dade                      Tommy

Daniels                 Vicky

Dean                      Al

Dean                      Harry

Dean                      A (Albert) G

Dean                      Henry

Desland                Bunny

Dhu                        Herbie

Dickens                 six in family

Dunn                      C.F. (Charlie)

Dunn                      Peter

Ferguson              Bernie

Ferguson              Rodney

Ferguson              Marty

Fleeting                Mr

Freeman              Herb

Grant                     Steve

Green                    Jack

Hanley                  Merle

Hardy                     Tom

Hardy                     Basil Tom

Hawkins                Joe

Hawkins                Wally

Hawkins                Fred

Hay                         Mary

Hay                         Tiny

Haylock                 B

Haylock                 Bertie

Heaps                    Sid

Heness                  Roy

Hewitt                   Jean

Hewitt                   Jack

Hewitt                   Charlie

Hewitt                   Betty

Hincapie               Julian

Hincapie               Humberto

Hoiwlett               Gordon

Hopcroft               Miss

Horton                  Barry

Howard/Brett     Adelaide

Howlett                Gordon

Howlett                Stuart

Hudson                 Rod

Hudson                 Chris

Humphery           Govia

Humpherys         Mark

Humphreys         Mike

Innes                     ?

James                    Gilbert

Johnson                Shaun

Kemp                     F

Kemsley               Burglar’

Kerr                        Jock

Kirkwood             Ken

Kirkwood             Jim

Knight                   Sid

Knight                   Tim

Knight                   Simon

Lane                       Bruce

Layton/Quinn    Maria

Le Messurier      Alf

Leggett                 Kenny

Leonard                Allan

Livingstone         R

Longworth           ?

Lovell                    Percy

Lyndon-Jones    John

Marles                   Bob

Marron                  Teddy

Martin                   Gloria

Masterman         Marmaduke

McCarthy             Charles

McClelland          Gordon

McClennand       Gordon

McCulloch           Tom

McCulloch           Marty

McDonald            Billy

McNaught            Ken

Merchant             Bill

Millar                     Harold

Millar                     Jack

Millar                     Col

Millar                     P.C

Millar                     Harold ‘Acka’

Millars                   Jack

Miller                    Col

Newell                  John

Nichol                   Dave

Nichol                   Sid

Nichol                   Dave

Nicol                      David (Snr)

Nielsen                 Eric

Nugent                 Bill

Nugent                 Anthea

Oliver                    Dinah

Oliver                    May

Oliver                    Bill

Oliver                    W.H. (Harry)

Parkins                  Arthur

Palmer                  Trevor (Snr)

Palmer                  Trevor (Jnr)

Pattingale            Evelyn

Pattingdale         Errnie

Perrott                  Allan

Quinn                    Bill

Quinn                    Maria

Rennie                  Alex

Richards               Rueben

Rose                       F (Fred) D

Ross                       Don

Scalia                     Dr. Umberto

Sharp                     G.V.

Shenton               Neville

Short                      Col

Silsby                     Alan

Smith                     Dora

Smith                     Percy

Smith                     Ken

Smith                     Gaddie

Smith                     Dora

Smith                     Gladdy

Smith                     Herbie

Smith                     Harry

Stacey                   Claude

Stovey                   May

Stuart                    uncle, nephew

Taylor                    Thomas

Thomas                 Charlie

Thomas                 Chris

Thompson           Alf

Tickner                  Sam (T.S)

Tickner                  Ted (E.G.)

Tickner                  Sam (S.G.)

Tickner                  Ted (Jnr)

Townsend            Mick

Turner                   Sid

Turner                   Frank

Turner                   E.L. (Les)

Tyrell                     W

Vorlicek                Big George

Wade                     John

Wade                     Jack

Wagstaff              Lindsay

Wagstaff              Albert (1)

Wagstaff              Albert (2)

Wagstaff              David (Jnr)

Walker                  Jack

Walker                  Jock

Warner                 Rex

Watton                 Flo

Watton                 Geroge

Watton                 Beryl

Watton                 Albert

Wearn                   Bill

White                    Dave M

White                    Darky’

Williams               Fred

Winch                    Bill

Witton                  Frank

Woodfine            Wally

Wright                   Ivy

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